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References for rubber mulch fact sheet

Arthur, M.A. and Y.T. Wang. 1999. Soil nutrients and microbial biomass following weed-control treatments in a Christmas tree plantation. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 63(3):629-637.

Azizian, M.F., P.O. Nelson, P. Thayumanavan and K.J. Williamson. 2001. Environmental impact of crumb rubber asphalt concrete leachate contaminants from highway construction and repair materials on surface and ground waters. American Chemical Society Abstracts 221(1-2): ENVR 15.

Bush, E., A. Owings and K. Leader, K. 2003. Foliar accumulation of zinc in tree species grown in hardwood bark media amended with crumb rubber. Journal of Plant Nutrition 26(7):1413-1425.

Bush, E., K. Leader and A. Owings. 2001. Foliar accumulation of zinc in tree species grown in pine bark media amended with crumb rubber. Journal of Plant Nutrition 24(3): 503-510.

Calkins, J.B., B.T. Swanson and D.L. Newman. 1996. Weed control strategies for field grown herbaceous perennials. Journal of Environmental Horticulture 14(4):221-227.

Chalker-Scott, L. 2007. Impact of mulches on landscape plants and the environment – a review. Journal of Environmental Horticulture 25(4): 239-249.

Christiansson, M., B. Stenberg and O. Holst. 2000. Toxic additives: A problem for microbial waste rubber desulphurization. Resource and Environmental Biotechnology 3(1): 11-21.

Ginsberg, G., B. Toal and T. Kurland. 2011. Benzothiazole toxicity assessment in support of synthetic turf field human health risk assessment. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 74(17):1175-1183.

Gualtieri, M., M. Milani, M. Camatini, M. Andrioletti and C. Vismara. 2005. Toxicity of tire debris leachates. Environment International 31(5): 723-730.

Kanematsu, M., A. Hayashi, M.S. Denison and T.M. Young. 2009. Characterization and potential environmental risks of leachate from shredded rubber mulches. Chemosphere 76(7):952-958.

Li,X.L., W. Berger, C. Musante and M.I. Mattina. 2010. Characterization of substances released from crumb rubber material used on artificial turf fields. Chemosphere 80(3):279-285.

Llompart, M., L. Sanchez-Prado, J. Pablo Lamas, C. Garcia-Jares, E. Roca and T. Dagnac. 2013. Hazardous organic chemicals in rubber recycled tire playgrounds and pavers. Chemosphere 90(2):423-31.

Ruffino, B., S. Fiore and M.C. Zanetti. 2013. Environmental-sanitary risk analysis procedure applied to artificial turf sports fields. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 20(7):4980-4992.

San-Miguel, G., G.D. Fowler and C.J. Sollars. 2002. The leaching of inorganic species from activated carbons produced from waste tyre rubber. Water Research 36(8): 1939-1946.

Simcox, N.J., A. Bracker, G. Ginsberg, B. Toal, B.Golembiewski, T. Kurland and C. Hedman. 2011. Synthetic turf field investigation in Connecticut. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 74(17):1133-1149.

Smolders, E. and F. Degryse. 2002. Fate and effect of zinc from tire debris in soil. Environmental Science and Technology 36(17): 3706-3710.

Snoddy, E.T. and A.G. Appel. 2013. Mulch preferences of the Asian cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 106(1):322-328.

Solano, L., A.G. Ristvey, J.D. Lea-Cox and S.M. Cohan. 2012. Sequestering zinc from recycled crumb rubber in extensive green roof media. Ecological Engineering 47:284-290.

Steward, L.G., T.D Sydnor and B. Bishop. 2003. The ease of ignition of 13 landscape mulches. Journal of Arboriculture 29(6): 317-321.

Stokes, V. 2012. Some biodegradable mulch materials provide effective weed control during establishment of ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) on farm woodland sites. Quarterly Journal of Forestry 106(4): 257-268.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2014. Common Wastes & Materials-Scrap Tires-Basic information.

Wik, A. and G. Dave. 2005. Environmental labeling of car tires – toxicity to Daphnia magna can be used as a screening method. Chemosphere 58(5): 645-651.


4 comments on “References for rubber mulch fact sheet”

  1. said on April 1, 2017:

    If you do decide to use the rubber mulch for playgrounds, note that the Consumer Product Safety Commission has published guidelines found in the CPSC Public Playground Safety Handbook.

  2. Nicholas said on April 4, 2017:

    My partner and I were just walking through our neighborhood and noticed unopened bags of mulch around the boarder of a property. I bent down to see what type it was, as it had an odd appearance, and we were both sadly surprised to find that the mulch was made of all recycled tire rubber. Nether of us had ever known that this even existed, and were extremely upset that it was even a concept in circulation…let alone in our community. We understand that there is so much of what we use that is made of plastic and rubber, but at the very least it must be reduced, and contained. But allowing it to be used as a shredded mulch that will never be contained, only drifted further into the soil…..that is angering! Can someone please shed some light on this subject for us? I looked it up and was further anger by the blatant lies that were published online on the fabricator/distributors websites, with in which claimed that “our product is not only safer for children to play on, but nontoxic and good for the environment”. Are you kidding me!!! I know that the US is far from perfect, but to claim rubber as nontoxic is basically like claiming that the sun is cold. And I know we are far from being environmentally conscious….but rubber mulch!!! Please help us understand this? Has this always been legal? How are the companies getting away with their lies on line? How can I make a difference? So often I feel so helpless against the plastic/rubber/petrol machine.

    • Chalker-Scott, Linda K said on April 13, 2017:

      I wish I had some good advice for you, Nicholas, but I don’t. There have been successful attempts to remove synthetic turf (which uses crumb rubber from the same source) because of health and environmental concerns. There is an organization ( that might be worth contacting regarding the safety of recycled tire products overall.

  3. said on August 7, 2017:

    If you do decide to use the rubber mulch for playgrounds, note that the Consumer Product Safety Commission has published guidelines found in the CPSC Public Playground Safety Handbook.

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